International Scientific Forum on Home Hygiene

Home Hygiene & Health

The Leading Source of Scientific, Professional & Consumer Information
International Scientific Forum on Home Hygiene

Home Hygiene & Health

The Leading Source of Scientific, Professional & Consumer Information

IFH Newsheet March 2013


  1. News
  2. New Materials from IFH
  3. Conferences & Meetings
  4. Library of Recent Publications

1. News

The Migration of the IFH Website is Now Completed

IFH Home Hygiene New Website Screenshot

First an apology for the lack of newssheets in the past few months, but we have been committed to moving our website and our “home hygiene community” database to a new host. This is now completed and we hope you like our new site. We have kept the same layout for menus and documents so that you will be able to navigate around the site in the same way as before. If you have not already done so, please visit the site and confirm your “account” to ensure that you continue to receive our email alerts and newssheets.

We have taken the opportunity to set up a new web menu item entitled "Consumer Information". This aims to assemble a collection of hygiene leaflets and advice sheets etc., which have been prepared by a variety of agencies, at various times, to meet their need to make information available directly to the public on specific issues. We need your help to build this resource so, if you have any relevant materials which you would be willing to share with our home hygiene community, please send them to us and we will place them on our website.

Danish Council for Better Hygiene − Knowledge is Power!

Bedre Logo

Or so they say. In Denmark this year knowledge is also health, or at least prevention. Communicable diseases are not only a nuisance in our daily lives but a socioeconomic challenge that has the potential to dwarf all other health challenges on the horizon.

In 2013 The Danish Council for Better Hygiene will initiate a discussion in Denmark about hygiene in a new sense. One of the things we will address is the teaching of hygiene within school curricula (e.g. why isn’t a course on “Handwashing” mandatory in every elementary school and high school as well?) and the place of hygiene in the general public prevention efforts. These ideas will be discussed at our seminar on May 7th  The School Toilet Day.

Again in 2013 we will launch our annual campaign “The Hygiene Week”, from September 16th to 20th.  This year, the slogan will roughly translate as “Hygiene – turn clean sense into healthy habits”. Hygiene Week is an event that has exceeded expectations every year so far. As in previous years it will include activities in both Denmark and Sweden – targeting 65 to 70 active municipalities with a combined population of almost 4 million Danes and Swedes. This year’s focus is that knowledge is central to everything from research, dissemination and training, to education etc. 

Whether activities are held in places such as day-care centres, schools, nursing homes, workplaces, hospitals, restaurants, kitchens, or hotels – the challenge is the same; How can we help turn our knowledge on the best, healthy practice (what we tend to call hygiene) into good daily routines and habits? The answers are never simple, but require our constant efforts to inform, innovate and motivate. So with The Hygiene Week 2013 we “happy few” in Denmark and Sweden will be going “once more unto the breach”, in the effort to secure better health for all. This news item was contributed by project leader Lars Munter.  For more information contact or go to

e-Bug: An update

EBug Screenshot

The e-Bug team have been extremely busy in the past year. Donna Lecky, the project leader tells us “We are delighted to welcome Saudi Arabia to our list of partner countries and have been working closely with Dr Eman Aldigs and Dr Hind Abdulmajed from King Abdulaziz University to translate the resources into Arabic. We hope to publish the new Arabic website in May 2013.

We are also thrilled to announce that e-Bug, in collaboration with the School Councils UK, have been successful in setting a new Guinness World Record for the largest, simultaneous hand hygiene lesson at multiple venues to mark Global Handwashing Day on 15th Oct 2012. At least 1,000 participants across ten venues took part in a simultaneous hand hygiene lesson. The record breaking was truly smashed as a total of 2,147 children from 21 schools took part from around the UK.”

European Antibiotic Awareness Day (EAAD) is celebrated on 18th November each year to raise awareness about prudent antibiotic use and the threat of antibiotic resistance. To highlight this important day to schools the e-Bug team run an annual schools competition. The competition this year is open to teachers and educators in two age categories KS2 and KS3/KS4. For each category the winning teacher will receive £100 and £500 for their school and free annual school corporate membership to the Society for General Microbiology (SGM). Two runners up in each category will receive £50 each and £150* for their school. To find out more about any of the items above, visit the e-Bug website at or contact

2. New Materials from IFH

In 2012 IFH completed two major new reports.

Based on the evidence that a significant proportion of infectious diseases are preventable through good food and respiratory hygiene, coupled with better hand and surface hygiene practices, IFH has prepared a report which uses both microbiological and epidemiological data to assess the potential impact of hygiene practices on infectious disease rates. The report is entitled: The chain of infection transmission in the home and everyday life settings, and the role of hygiene in reducing the risk of infection, and is available from the IFH website.

“The Hygiene Hypothesis and its implications for home hygiene, lifestyle and public health” examines the scientific and epidemiological evidence relating to the hypothesis, and our relationship with the microbial world we live in. Both the full report and a summary of the key findings and conclusions are available from the IFH website. The report challenges the idea that the recent epidemic rise in allergies has happened because we’re living in sterile homes and overdoing hygiene. However, far from saying microbial exposure is not important, the report concludes that the required “exposures” are not due to infectious diseases, but due to environmental, and human and animal commensal microbes. The report also concludes that altered exposure is not about day-to-day cleanliness, but the result of a broader range of measures and activities, vital to protecting us from infectious disease, but which have also inadvertently reduced or altered exposure to the microbial friends that regulate our immune systems.

3. Conferences and Meetings

The Hygiene Hypothesis − what does it really mean − what are the implications for protecting children's health? Symposium held at the Annual Conference of the European Paediatric Association Friday 30th November 2012, Madrid Spain.

IFH had the opportunity to host a symposium in which the findings of the recent IFH report on the hygiene hypothesis were presented. As well as discussing the hypothesis and how it has developed in recent years, the symposium considered what are the likely factors which have contributed to reducing the microbial exposure required for immune regulation, and what strategies might be adopted for simultaneously addressing the issues relating to our need for microbial exposure and our need to prevent infections through effective hygiene in home and everyday life settings. The session started with an epidemiological overview from Dr Rosalind Stanwell Smith (London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine) followed by presentations entitled The Darwinian reformulation; the Old Friends mechanism” by Prof. Graham Rook (University College, London) and The “hygiene hypothesis” what are the implications for protecting children's health? Are we too clean for our own good? by Professor Sally Bloomfield (London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and International Scientific Forum on Home Hygiene). The symposium was sponsored by Reckitt Benckiser.

South East Asia Regional Public Health Conference and 57th Annual Conference of Indian Public Health Association, 1st –3rd February 2013, Kolkata, India.

The aim of this conference was to critically examine the recent contributions of public health in the region, and evolve a new sense of direction, in keeping with new public health concepts and strategies, to help governmental, non-governmental and academic institutions fulfil their responsibility to preserve, protect and promote health. The conference, attended by more than 2,000 delegates, was aimed at fostering efficient and effective networks for the promotion of evidence-informed, decision-making (EIDM), knowledge management (KM), and capacity development in public health. The conference included a session entitled “Challenges of Hygiene in Home and Everyday Life Settings: A shared responsibility for infection control” which was sponsored by Hindustan Unilever Group, with technical support provided by IFH South East Asia Office. The presentations were entitled: “Perception and practice of targeted home hygiene for promotion of public health” by Prof. SK Ray (Dept of Community Medicine, KPC Medical College, Kolkata), “Challenges in Hygiene: Protection against everyday infections” by Ms Gouri Malhotra (Hindustan Unilever Ltd) and “Effective convergence between National Rural Health Mission, National Rural Drinking Water programme and Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan, for greater synergy and impacts on communities towards water safety and security, including personal and home hygiene” by Mr SN Dave (WASH Specialist, UNICEF, West Bengal). The presentations can be downloaded from the IFH website.

4. Library of Recent Publications

The following is a list of 2012/13 publications which have direct relevance to hygiene (infection control) in home and everyday life settings and which have now been posted in our library of recent publications. The full abstracts can be obtained from the IFH website.

Topic 1 – Disease incidence

Anbazhagi S, Kamatchiammal S, Jayakar Santhosh D. Norovirus based viral gastroenteritis in Chennai city of southern India - An epidemiological study. Journal of General and Molecular Virology Vol. 3(2), Pages 27-34, 2011 Apr. Available online at

Artieda J, Basterrechea M, Arriola L, Yagüe M, Albisua E, Arostegui N, Astigarraga U, Botello R, Manterola JM. Outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in a child day-care centre in Gipuzkoa, Spain, October to December 2011. Euro Surveill. 2012 Feb 2;17(5). pii: 20070. Available online:

Danaei G. Global burden of infection-related cancer revisited. Lancet Oncol. 2012 Jun;13(6):564-5. doi: 10.1016/S1470-2045(12)70176-6. Epub 2012 May 9.

Gormley FJ, Little CL, Rawal N, Gillespie A, Lebaigue S, Adak GK. A 17-year review of foodborne outbreaks: describing the continuing decline in England and Wales (1992–2008). Epidemiol Infect 2011;139,688-99.

Grobusch M. Infectious diseases - a geographic guide. The Lancet Infectious Diseases. Vol. 12, Issue 4, Pages 279-80, 2012 Apr  doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(12)70077-4.

Kieninger E, Fuchs O, Latzin P, Frey U, Regamey N. Rhinovirus infections in infancy and early childhood. Eur Respir J. 2013 Feb;41(2):443-52. doi: 10.1183/09031936.00203511. Epub 2012 Jun 27.

Krishnamoorthy N, Khare A, Oriss TB, Raundhal M, Morse C, Yarlagadda M, Wenzel SE, Moore ML, Peebles RS Jr, Ray A, Ray P. Early infection with respiratory syncytial virus impairs regulatory T cell function and increases susceptibility to allergic asthma. Nat Med. 2012 Oct;18(10):1525-30. doi: 10.1038/nm.2896. Epub 2012 Sep 9.

Mangerich A, Knutson CG, Parry NM, Muthupalani S, Ye W, Prestwich E, Cui L, McFaline JL, Mobley M, Ge Z, Taghizadeh K, Wishnok JS, Wogan GN, Fox JG, Tannenbaum SR, Dedon PC. PNAS Plus: Infection-induced colitis in mice causes dynamic and tissue-specific changes in stress response and DNA damage leading to colon cancer. PNAS 2012; published ahead of print June 11, 2012, doi:10.1073/pnas.1207829109.

Painter JA, Hoekstra RM, Ayers T, Tauxe RV, Braden CR, Angulo FJ, Griffin PM. Attribution of foodborne illnesses, hospitalizations, and deaths to food commodities by using outbreak data, United States, 1998–2008. Emerg Infect Dis [Internet]. 2013 Mar.

Risebro HL, Breton L, Aird H, Hooper A, Hunter PR. Contaminated small drinking water supplies and risk of infectious intestinal disease: a prospective cohort study. PLoS One. 2012;7(8):e42762. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0042762. Epub 2012 Aug 24.

Scallan E, Hoekstra RM, Angulo FJ, Tauxe RV, Widdowson MA, Roy SL, Jones JL, Griffin PM. Foodborne illness acquired in the United States--major pathogens. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011 Jan;17(1):7-15. doi: 10.3201/eid1701.091101p1.

SteelFisher GK, Blendon RJ, Ward JR, Rapoport R, Kahn EB, Kohl KS. Public response to the 2009 influenza A H1N1 pandemic: a polling study in five countries. Lancet Infect Dis. 2012 Nov;12(11):845-50. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(12)70206-2. Epub 2012 Oct 5.

Tate JE, Burton AH, Boschi-Pinto C, Steele AD, Duque J, Parashar UD; WHO-coordinated Global Rotavirus Surveillance Network. 2008 estimate of worldwide rotavirus-associated mortality in children younger than 5 years before the introduction of universal rotavirus vaccination programmes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Infect Dis. 2012 Feb;12(2):136-41. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(11)70253-5. Epub 2011 Oct 24.

Tischer CG, Heinrich J. Exposure assessment of residential mould, fungi and microbial components in relation to children's health: Achievements and challenges. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2012 Jun 13. [Epub ahead of print].

Wiemels J. Perspectives on the causes of childhood leukemia. Chem Biol Interact. 2012 Feb 2. [Epub ahead of print].

Topic 2 – Infection potential

Badr RI, Badr HI, Ali NM. Mobile phones and nosocomial infections. Int J Infect Control 2012, v8:i2.

Biranjia-Hurdoyal S, Quirin T. Comparative contamination rate of toys in kindergartens and households. Am J Infect Control. 2012 Aug;40(6):577-8. doi: 10.1016/j.ajic.2012.04.337.

Borchardt MA, Spencer SK, Kieke BA, Lambertini E, Loge F. Viruses in non-disinfected drinking water from municipal wells and community incidence of acute gastrointestinal illness. Environ Health Perspect. 2012 Sep;120(9):1272-9. doi: 10.1289/ehp.1104499. Epub 2012 May 31.

Davis MF, Baron P, Price LB, Williams DL, Jeyaseelan S, Hambleton IR, Diette GB, Breysse PN, McCormack MC. Dry collection and culture methods for recovery of methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains from indoor home environments. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2012 Apr;78(7):2474-6. doi: 10.1128/AEM.06886-11. Epub 2012 Jan 27.

Flores GE, Bates ST, Knights D, Lauber CL, Stombaugh J, Knight R, Fierer N. Microbial biogeography of public restroom surfaces. PLoS One. 2011;6(11):e28132. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0028132. Epub 2011 Nov 23.

Jarvis WR, Jarvis AA, Chinn RY. National prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in inpatients at United States health care facilities, 2010. Am J Infect Control. 2012 Apr;40(3):194-200. doi: 10.1016/j.ajic.2012.02.001.

Kembel SW, Jones E, Kline J, Northcutt D, Stenson J, Womack AM, Bohannan BJ, Brown GZ, Green JL. Architectural design influences the diversity and structure of the built environment microbiome. ISME J. 2012 Aug;6(8):1469-79. doi: 10.1038/ismej.2011.211. Epub 2012 Jan 26.

Kellogg DS, Rosenbaum PF, Kiska DL, Riddell SW, Welch TR, Shaw J. High fecal hand contamination among wilderness hikers. Am J Infect Control. 2012 Nov;40(9):893-5. doi: 10.1016/j.ajic.2011.11.009. Epub 2012 Mar 14.

Kennedy J, Gibney S, Nolan A, O’Brien S, McMahon MAS, McDowell D, Fanning S, Wall PG. Identification of critical points during domestic food preparation: an observational study. British Food Journal Vol. 113 No. 6, 2011 pp. 766-83.

Lim SS, Vos T, Flaxman AD, et al. A comparative risk assessment of burden of disease and injury attributable to 67 risk factors and risk factor clusters in 21 regions, 1990-2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet. 2012 Dec 15;380(9859):2224-60. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61766-8.

Markley JD, Edmond MB, Major Y, Bearman G, Stevens MP. Are gym surfaces reservoirs for Staphylococcus aureus? A point prevalence survey. Am J Infect Control. 2012 Dec;40(10):1008-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ajic.2012.01.015. Epub 2012 May 22.

Miller LG, Eells SJ, Taylor AR, David MZ, Ortiz N, Zychowski D, Kumar N, Cruz D, Boyle-Vavra S, Daum RS. Staphylococcus aureus colonization among household contacts of patients with skin infections: risk factors, strain discordance, and complex ecology. Clin Infect Dis. 2012 Jun;54(11):1523-35. doi: 10.1093/cid/cis213. Epub 2012 Apr 3

Mukherjee DV, Cohen B, Bovino ME, Desai S, Whittier S, Larson EL. Survival of influenza virus on hands and fomites in community and laboratory settings. Am J Infect Control. 2012 Sep;40(7):590-4. doi: 10.1016/j.ajic.2011.09.006. Epub 2012 Jan 20.

Nasir ZA, Colbeck I, Sultan S, Ahmed S. Bioaerosols in residential micro-environments in low income countries: a case study from Pakistan. Environ Pollut. 2012 Sep;168:15-22. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2012.03.047. Epub 2012 May 14.

O'Donnell M, Stokes L, Cadnum J, Sitzlar BM, Donskey CJ. Dirty laundry? Evaluation of Clostridium difficile contamination in the laundry at a long-term care facility. Am J Infect Control. 2012;40: e152 Poster 16-237.

Ohl M, Schweizer M, Graham M, Heilmann K, Boyken L, Diekema D. Hospital privacy curtains are frequently and rapidly contaminated with potentially pathogenic bacteria. Am J Infect Control. 2012 Dec;40(10):904-6. doi: 10.1016/j.ajic.2011.12.017. Epub 2012 Mar 30.

Smith R, Snedeker L, Rivera K. Bath basins: who knows where evil lurks. Am J Infect Control. 2012;40:e152 Poster 15-207.

Snary EL, Kelly LA, Davison HC, Teale CJ, Wooldridge M. Antimicrobial resistance: a microbial risk assessment perspective. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2004 Jun;53(6):906-17. Epub 2004 Apr 21.

Uhlemann AC, Knox J, Miller M, Hafer C, Vasquez G, Ryan M, Vavagiakis P, Shi Q, Lowy FD. The environment as an unrecognized reservoir for community-associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300: a case-control study. PLoS One. 2011;6(7):e22407. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0022407. Epub 2011 Jul 26.

Zapka CA, Campbell EJ, Maxwell SL, Gerba CP, Dolan MJ, Arbogast JW, Macinga DR. Bacterial hand contamination and transfer after use of contaminated bulk-soap-refillable dispensers. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011 May;77(9):2898-904. doi: 10.1128/AEM.02632-10. Epub 2011 Mar 18.

Topic 3 – Hygiene procedures

Attaway HH 3rd, Fairey S, Steed LL, Salgado CD, Michels HT, Schmidt MG. Intrinsic bacterial burden associated with intensive care unit hospital beds: effects of disinfection on population recovery and mitigation of potential infection risk. Am J Infect Control. 2012 Dec;40(10):907-12. doi: 10.1016/j.ajic.2011.11.019. Epub 2012 Feb 22.

Balm MN, Jureen R, Teo C, Yeoh AE, Lin RT, Dancer SJ, Fisher DA. Hot and steamy: outbreak of Bacillus cereus in Singapore associated with construction work and laundry practices. J Hosp Infect. 2012 Jun 14. [Epub ahead of print].

Boyce JM, Dupont HL, Massaro J, Sack D, Schaffner DW. An expert panel report of a proposed scientific model demonstrating the effectiveness of antibacterial handwash products. Am J Infect Control. 2012 Oct;40(8):742-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ajic.2011.09.016. Epub 2012 Feb 1.

Chow A, Arah OA, Chan SP, Poh BF, Krishnan P, Ng WK, Choudhury S, Chan J, Ang B. Alcohol handrubbing and chlorhexidine handwashing protocols for routine hospital practice: a randomized clinical trial of protocol efficacy and time effectiveness. Am J Infect Control. 2012 Nov;40(9):800-5. doi: 10.1016/j.ajic.2011.10.005. Epub 2012 Feb 10.

Deshaies F, Ahmad D, Massicotte R, Pichette G, Belhumeur P, Assanta MA. Risk management for transmission of infection from inanimate surfaces in healthcare facilities. Int J Infect Control 2012, v8:i2.

Feliciano L, Li J, Lee J, Pascall MA. Efficacies of sodium hypochlorite and quaternary ammonium sanitizers for reduction of norovirus and selected bacteria during ware-washing operations. PLoS One. 2012;7(12):e50273. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0050273. Epub 2012 Dec 5.

Heaselgrave W, Kilvington S. The efficacy of simulated solar disinfection (SODIS) against coxsackievirus, poliovirus and hepatitis A virus. J Water Health. 2012 Dec;10(4):531-8. doi: 10.2166/wh.2012.128.

Hoelzer K, Pouillot R, Gallagher D, Silverman MB, Kause J, Dennis S. Estimation of Listeria monocytogenes transfer coefficients and efficacy of bacterial removal through cleaning and sanitation. Int J Food Microbiol. 2012 May 25. [Epub ahead of print].

Larson EL, Cohen B, Baxter KA. Analysis of alcohol-based hand sanitizer delivery systems: efficacy of foam, gel, and wipes against influenza A (H1N1) virus on hands. Am J Infect Control. 2012 Nov;40(9):806-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ajic.2011.10.016. Epub 2012 Feb 10.

Grabsch EA, Mahony AA, Cameron DR, Martin RD, Heland M, Davey P, Petty M, Xie S, Grayson ML. Significant reduction in vancomycin-resistant enterococcus colonization and bacteraemia after introduction of a bleach-based cleaning-disinfection programme. J Hosp Infect. 2012 Dec;82(4):234-42. doi: 10.1016/j.jhin.2012.08.010. Epub 2012 Oct 25.

Leggett MJ, McDonnell G, Denyer SP, Setlow P, Maillard JY. Bacterial spore structures and their protective role in biocide resistance. J Appl Microbiol. 2012 Sep;113(3):485-98. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2672.2012.05336.x. Epub 2012 May 31.

Manian FA, Griesnauer S, Bryant A. Implementation of hospital-wide enhanced terminal cleaning of targeted patient rooms and its impact on endemic Clostridium difficile infection rates. Am J Infect Control. 2012 Dec 6. pii: S0196-6553(12)01059-0. doi: 10.1016/j.ajic.2012.06.014. [Epub ahead of print].

Oie S, Arakawa J, Furukawa H, Matsumoto S, Matsuda N, Wakamatsu H. Microbial contamination of a disinfectant-soaked unwoven cleaning cloth. J Hosp Infect. 2012 Sep;82(1):61-3. doi: 10.1016/j.jhin.2012.06.010. Epub 2012 Jul 31.

Park DK, Bitton G, Melker R. Microbial inactivation by microwave radiation in the home environment. J Environ Health. 2006 Dec;69(5):17-24; quiz 39-40.

Stapleton K, Hill K, Day K, Perry JD, Dean JR. The potential impact of washing machines on laundry malodour generation. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2013 Jan 26. doi: 10.1111/lam.12050. [Epub ahead of print].

Steinmann J, Paulmann D, Becker B, Bischoff B, Steinmann E, Steinmann J. Comparison of virucidal activity of alcohol-based hand sanitizers versus antimicrobial hand soaps in vitro and in vivo. J Hosp Infect. 2012 Dec;82(4):277-80. doi: 10.1016/j.jhin.2012.08.005. Epub 2012 Sep 23.

Suchomel M, Kundi M, Pittet D, Weinlich M, Rotter ML. Testing of the World Health Organization recommended formulations in their application as hygienic hand rubs and proposals for increased efficacy. Am J Infect Control. 2012 May;40(4):328-31. doi: 10.1016/j.ajic.2011.06.012. Epub 2011 Dec 1.

Swift D, Dhyani R, Del Re D, Mair R, Ikeno C, Legner M, Cvitkovitch DG. Effect of disinfectants on clinically relevant bacteria under planktonic and biofilm conditions. Am J Infect Control 2012, 40: e31-176. Presentation Number 2-020.

Vinnard C, Lee I, Linkin D. Successful control of a norovirus outbreak among attendees of a hospital teaching conference. Am J Infect Control. 2012 Feb;40(1):73-4. doi: 10.1016/j.ajic.2011.03.033. Epub 2011 Aug 4.

Topic 4 – Intervention studies

Stone SP, Fuller C, Savage J, Cookson B, Hayward A, Cooper B, Duckworth G, Michie S, Murray M, Jeanes A, Roberts J, Teare L, Charlett A. Evaluation of the national Cleanyourhands campaign to reduce Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia and Clostridium difficile infection in hospitals in England and Wales by improved hand hygiene: four year, prospective, ecological, interrupted time series study. BMJ. 2012 May 3;344:e3005. doi: 10.1136/bmj.e3005.

Wiemken T, Faughender A, Clay J, Carrico R, Ramirez J. Targeted, daily environmental disinfection with Clorox Dispatch for the prevention of hospital-associated Clostridium difficile and Acinetobacter baumannii. Poster Number 2-010.

Topic 5 – Behaviour change

Miko BA, Cohen B, Conway L, Gilman A, Seward SL Jr, Larson E. Determinants of personal and household hygiene among college students in New York City, 2011. Am J Infect Control. 2012 Dec;40(10):940-5. doi: 10.1016/j.ajic.2011.12.015. Epub 2012 Mar 30.

Topic 6 – Microbial resistance

Abuzaid A, Hamouda A, Amyes SG. Klebsiella pneumoniae susceptibility to biocides and its association with cepA, qacΔE and qacE efflux pump genes and antibiotic resistance. J Hosp Infect. 2012 Jun;81(2):87-91. doi: 10.1016/j.jhin.2012.03.003. Epub 2012 Apr 11.

Burke L, Humphreys H, Fitzgerald-Hughes D. The revolving door between hospital and community: extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli in Dublin. J Hosp Infect. 2012 Jul;81(3):192-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jhin.2012.04.021. Epub 2012 Jun 2.

Carson RT, Larson E, Levy SB, Marshall BM, Aiello AE. Use of antibacterial consumer products containing quaternary ammonium compounds and drug resistance in the community. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2008 Nov;62(5):1160-2. doi: 10.1093/jac/dkn332. Epub 2008 Aug 11.

Hetem DJ, Westh H, Boye K, Jarløv JO, Bonten MJ, Bootsma MC. Nosocomial transmission of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Danish Hospitals. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2012 Jul;67(7):1775-80. doi: 10.1093/jac/dks125. Epub 2012 Apr 20.

Kastbjerg VG, Gram L. Industrial disinfectants do not select for resistance in Listeria monocytogenes following long term exposure. Int J Food Microbiol. 2012 Nov 1;160(1):11-5. doi: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2012.09.009. Epub 2012 Sep 23.

Lautenbach E, Tolomeo P, Nachamkin I, Hu B, Zaoutis TE. The impact of household transmission on duration of outpatient colonization with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Epidemiol Infect. 2010 May;138(5):683-5. doi: 10.1017/S0950268810000099. Epub 2010 Jan 29.

Löhr IH, Rettedal S, Natås OB, Naseer U, Oymar K, Sundsfjord A. Long-term fecal carriage in infants and intra-household transmission of CTX-M-15-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae following a nosocomial outbreak. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2013 Jan 3. [Epub ahead of print]

Marshall BM, Robleto E, Dumont T, Levy SB. The frequency of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in homes differing in their use of surface antibacterial agents. Curr Microbiol. 2012 Oct;65(4):407-15. doi: 10.1007/s00284-012-0172-x. Epub 2012 Jul 3.

Middleton JH, Salierno JD. Antibiotic resistance in triclosan tolerant fecal coliforms isolated from surface waters near wastewater treatment plant outflows (Morris County, NJ, USA). Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2013 Feb;88:79-88. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2012.10.025. Epub 2012 Nov 27.

Medhus A, Slettemeås JS, Marstein L, Larssen KW, Sunde M. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus with the novel mecC gene variant isolated from a cat suffering from chronic conjunctivitis. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2012 Dec 4. [Epub ahead of print].

Mkrtchyan HV, Russell CA, Wang N, Cutler RR. Could public restrooms be an environment for bacterial resistomes? PLoS One. 2013;8(1):e54223. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0054223. Epub 2013 Jan 17.

Nicolas-Chanoine MH, Gruson C, Bialek-Davenet S, Bertrand X, Thomas-Jean F, Bert F, Moyat M, Meiller E, Marcon E, Danchin N, Noussair L, Moreau R, Leflon-Guibout V. 10-Fold increase (2006-11) in the rate of healthy subjects with extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli faecal carriage in a Parisian check-up centre. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2013 Mar;68(3):562-8. doi: 10.1093/jac/dks429. Epub 2012 Nov 9.

Otter JA, Patel A, Cliff PR, Halligan EP, Tosas O, Edgeworth JD. Selection for qacA carriage in CC22, but not CC30, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection isolates during a successful institutional infection control programme. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2013 Jan 3. [Epub ahead of print].

Poole K. Bacterial stress responses as determinants of antimicrobial resistance. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2012 Sep;67(9):2069-89. doi: 10.1093/jac/dks196. Epub 2012 May 22.

van der Bij AK, Pitout JD. The role of international travel in the worldwide spread of multiresistant Enterobacteriaceae. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2012 Sep;67(9):2090-100. doi: 10.1093/jac/dks214. Epub 2012 Jun 7.

Wellington EM, Boxall AB, Cross P, Feil EJ, Gaze WH, Hawkey PM, Johnson-Rollings AS, Jones DL, Lee NM, Otten W, Thomas CM, Williams AP. The role of the natural environment in the emergence of antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative bacteria. Lancet Infect Dis. 2013 Feb;13(2):155-65. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(12)70317-1.

Wickramasinghe NH, Xu L, Eustace A, Shabir S, Saluja T, Hawkey PM. High community faecal carriage rates of CTX-M ESBL-producing Escherichia coli in a specific population group in Birmingham, UK. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2012 May;67(5):1108-13. doi: 10.1093/jac/dks018. Epub 2012 Mar 8.

Topic 7 – Hygiene hypothesis

Alm B, Erdes L, Möllborg P, Pettersson R, Norvenius SG, Aberg N, Wennergren G. Neonatal antibiotic treatment is a risk factor for early wheezing. Pediatrics. 2008 Apr;121(4):697-702. doi: 10.1542/peds.2007-1232.

Bertelsen RJ, Longnecker MP, Løvik M, Calafat AM, Carlsen KH, London SJ, Lødrup Carlsen KC. Triclosan exposure and allergic sensitization in Norwegian children. Allergy. 2013 Jan;68(1):84-91. doi: 10.1111/all.12058. Epub 2012 Nov 12.

Casas L, Tischer C, Wouters IM, Valkonen M, Gehring U, Doekes G, Torrent M, Pekkanen J, Garcia-Esteban R, Hyvärinen A, Heinrich J, Sunyer J. Endotoxin, extracellular polysaccharides and β(1-3)-glucans concentrations in dust and their determinants in 4 European birth cohorts: results from the hitea project. Indoor Air. 2012 Nov 26. doi: 10.1111/ina.12017. [Epub ahead of print].

Dunder T, Tapiainen T, Pokka T, Uhari M. Infections in child day care centers and later development of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis: prospective follow-up survey 12 years after controlled randomized hygiene intervention. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2007 Oct;161(10):972-7.

Ege MJ, Mayer M, Schwaiger K, Mattes J, Pershagen G, van Hage M, Scheynius A, Bauer J, von Mutius E. Environmental bacteria and childhood asthma. Allergy. 2012 Dec;67(12):1565-71. doi: 10.1111/all.12028. Epub 2012 Sep 21.

Erbas B, Lowe AJ, Lodge CJ, Matheson MC, Hosking CS, Hill DJ, Vicendese D, Allen KJ, Abramson MJ, Dharmage SC. Persistent pollen exposure during infancy is associated with increased risk of subsequent childhood asthma and hay fever. Clinical & Experimental Allergy.

Genuneit J. Exposure to farming environments in childhood and asthma and wheeze in rural populations: a systematic review with meta-analysis. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2012: 00.

Gomez A, Luckey D, Yeoman CJ, Marietta EV, Berg Miller ME, Murray JA, White BA, Taneja V. Loss of sex and age driven differences in the gut microbiome characterize arthritis-susceptible 0401 mice but not arthritis-resistant 0402 mice. PLoS One. 2012;7(4):e36095. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0036095. Epub 2012 Apr 24.

Korhonen LM. Enterovirus infections in early childhood and the risk of atopic disease – a nested case-control study. Clinical & Experimental Allergy.

Krishnamoorthy N, Khare A, Oriss TB, Raundhal M, Morse C, Yarlagadda M, Wenzel SE, Moore ML, Peebles RS Jr, Ray A, Ray P. Early infection with respiratory syncytial virus impairs regulatory T cell function and increases susceptibility to allergic asthma. Nat Med. 2012 Oct;18(10):1525-30. doi: 10.1038/nm.2896. Epub 2012 Sep 9.

Kronman MP, Zaoutis TE, Haynes K, Feng R, Coffin SE. Antibiotic exposure and IBD development among children: a population-based cohort study. Pediatrics. 2012 Oct;130(4):e794-803. doi: 10.1542/peds.2011-3886. Epub 2012 Sep 24.

Morales E, García-Esteban R, Guxens M, Guerra S, Mendez M, Moltó-Puigmartí C, Lopez-Sabater MC, Sunyer J. Effects of prolonged breastfeeding and colostrum fatty acids on allergic manifestations and infections in infancy. Clin Exp Allergy. 2012 Jun;42(6):918-28. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2222.2012.03969.x.

Nagel G, Weinmayr G, Flohr C, Kleiner A, Strachan DP, ISAAC Phase Two Study Group. Association of pertussis and measles infections and immunizations with asthma and allergic sensitization in ISAAC Phase Two. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2012: 00.

Ownby DR, Peterson EL, Wegienka G, Woodcroft KJ, Nicholas C, Zoratti E, Johnson CC. Are Cats and Dogs the Major Source of Endotoxin in Homes? Indoor Air. 2012 Nov 21. doi: 10.1111/ina.12016. [Epub ahead of print].

Russell SL, Gold MJ, Hartmann M, Willing BP, Thorson L, Wlodarska M, Gill N, Blanchet MR, Mohn WW, McNagny KM, Finlay BB. Early life antibiotic-driven changes in microbiota enhance susceptibility to allergic asthma. EMBO Rep. 2012 May 1;13(5):440-7. doi: 10.1038/embor.2012.32.

Stöcklin L, Loss G, von Mutius E, Genuneit J, Horak E, Braun-Fahrländer C; GABRIELA study group. Health-related quality of life does not explain the protective effect of farming on allergies. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2012 Sep;23(6):519-21. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-3038.2012.01305.x. Epub 2012 May 3.

Yap J, Qadir A, Liu I, Loh J, Tan BH, Lee VJ. Outbreak of acute norovirus gastroenteritis in a military facility in Singapore: a public health perspective. Singapore Med J. 2012 Apr;53(4):249-54.

Topic 8 – Safety

Cottera M, Boyleb F, Khana A, Boob TW, O’Connella B. Dissemination of extended-spectrum b-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli at home: a potential occupational hazard for healthcare workers? J Hosp Inf 80 (2012) 92-102.