International Scientific Forum on Home Hygiene

Home Hygiene & Health

The Leading Source of Scientific, Professional & Consumer Information
International Scientific Forum on Home Hygiene

Home Hygiene & Health

The Leading Source of Scientific, Professional & Consumer Information

IFH Newsheet February 2015


This newsheet contains the latest scientific publications which are relevant to development and promotion of hygiene/infection prevention in home and everyday settings.

The full abstract can be found in the relevant section of the publication section of the IFH website at Publications are listed under the following sections:

  1. Disease Incidence

  2. Infection Transmission

  3. Hygiene Procedures

  4. Hygiene Intervention Studies

  5. Promoting Behaviour Change

  6. Intervention Studies

  7. Microbial Resistance

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Topic 1 – Disease incidence

Desselberger U, Goodfellow I. Noroviruses: a global cause of acute gastroenteritis. Lancet Infect Dis. 2014 Aug;14(8):664-5. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(14)70776-5. Epub 2014 Jun 26.

Ahmed SM, Lopman BA, Levy K. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the global seasonality of norovirus. PLoS One. 2013 Oct 2;8(10):e75922. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0075922. eCollection 2013.


Topic 2 – Infection potential

Zou L, Meng J, McDermott PF, Wang F, Yang Q, Cao G, Hoffmann M, Zhao S. Presence of disinfectant resistance genes in Escherichia coli isolated from retail meats in the USA. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2014 Oct;69(10):2644-9. doi: 10.1093/jac/dku197. Epub 2014 Jun 7.

Abraham S, Wong HS, Turnidge J, Johnson JR, Trott DJ. Carbapenemase-producing bacteria in companion animals: a public health concern on the horizon. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2014 May;69(5):1155-7. doi: 10.1093/jac/dkt518. Epub 2014 Jan 6.

Bain R, Cronk R, Hossain R, Bonjour S, Onda K, Wright J, Yang H, Slaymaker T, Hunter P, Prüss-Ustün A, Bartram J. Global assessment of exposure to faecal contamination through drinking water based on a systematic review. Trop Med Int Health. 2014 Aug;19(8):917-27. doi: 10.1111/tmi.12334. Epub 2014 May 8.

Cloutman-Green E, Kalaycioglu O, Wojani H, Hartley JC, Guillas S, Malone D, Gant V, Grey C, Klein N. The important role of sink location in handwashing compliance and microbial sink contamination. Am J Infect Control. 2014 May;42(5):554-5. doi: 10.1016/j.ajic.2013.12.020.

Thompson KA, Copley VR, Parks S, Walker JT, Bennett AM. Staphylococcus aureus dispersal from healthy volunteers. Am J Infect Control. 2014 Mar;42(3):260-4. doi: 10.1016/j.ajic.2013.09.029.

Rose M, Landman D, Quale J. Are community environmental surfaces near hospitals reservoirs for gram-negative nosocomial pathogens? Am J Infect Control. 2014 Apr;42(4):346-8. doi: 10.1016/j.ajic.2013.12.025.

Oxford J, Berezin EN, Courvalin P, Dwyer DE, Exner M, Jana LA, Kaku M, Lee C, Letlape K, Low DE, Madani TA, Rubino JR, Saini N, Schoub BD, Signorelli C, Tierno PM, Zhong X. The survival of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus on 4 household surfaces. Am J Infect Control. 2014 Apr;42(4):423-5. doi: 10.1016/j.ajic.2013.10.016.

Shang J, Ma C, Poghosyan L, Dowding D, Stone P. The prevalence of infections and patient risk factors in home health care: a systematic review. Am J Infect Control. 2014 May;42(5):479-84. doi: 10.1016/j.ajic.2013.12.018. Epub 2014 Mar 20.

Roberts MC, No DB. Environment surface sampling in 33 Washington State fire stations for methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus. Am J Infect Control. 2014 Jun;42(6):591-6. doi: 10.1016/j.ajic.2014.02.019.

Azor-Martínez E, Gonzalez-Jimenez Y, Seijas-Vazquez ML, Cobos-Carrascosa E, Santisteban-Martínez J, Martínez-López JM, Jimenez-Noguera E, Galan-Requena Mdel M, Garrido-Fernández P, Strizzi JM, Gimenez-Sanchez F. The impact of common infections on school absenteeism during an academic year. Am J Infect Control. 2014 Jun;42(6):632-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ajic.2014.02.017.

D'Arcy N, Cloutman-Green E, Klein N, Spratt DA. Environmental viral contamination in a pediatric hospital outpatient waiting area: implications for infection control. Am J Infect Control. 2014 Aug;42(8):856-60. doi: 10.1016/j.ajic.2014.04.014.

Knelson LP, Williams DA, Gergen MF, Rutala WA, Weber DJ, Sexton DJ, Anderson DJ; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Epicenters Program. A comparison of environmental contamination by patients infected or colonized with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus or vancomycin-resistant enterococci: a multicenter study. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2014 Jul;35(7):872-5. doi: 10.1086/676861. Epub 2014 May 7.

Li Y, Fraser A, Chen X, Cates S, Wohlgenant K, Jaykus LA. Microbiological analysis of environmental samples collected from childcare facilities in North and South Carolina. Am J Infect Control. 2014 Oct;42(10):1049-55. doi: 10.1016/j.ajic.2014.06.030.

Cochard H, Aubier B, Quentin R, van der Mee-Marquet N; Réseau des Hygiénistes du Centre. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in French nursing homes: an association between high carriage rate among residents, environmental contamination, poor conformity with good hygiene practice, and putative resident-to-resident transmission. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2014 Apr;35(4):384-9. doi: 10.1086/675599.

Ambrose CS, Coelingh KL. Small-particle aerosolization of live attenuated influenza vaccine virus. J Infect Dis. 2012 Jan 15;205(2):348; author reply 348-9. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jir736. Epub 2011 Nov 28.

Davis JA, Jackson CR, Fedorka-Cray PJ, Barrett JB, Brousse JH, Gustafson J, Kucher M. Carriage of methicillin-resistant staphylococci by healthy companion animals in the US. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2014 Jul;59(1):1-8. doi: 10.1111/lam.12254. Epub 2014 Apr 15.

Duffy J, Harris J, Gade L, Sehulster L, Newhouse E, O'Connell H, Noble-Wang J, Rao C, Balajee SA, Chiller T. Mucormycosis outbreak associated with hospital linens. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2014 May;33(5):472-6. doi: 10.1097/INF.0000000000000261.

He C, Salonen H, Ling X, Crilley L, Jayasundara N, Cheung HC, Hargreaves M, Huygens F, Knibbs LD, Ayoko GA, Morawska L. The impact of flood and post-flood cleaning on airborne microbiological and particle contamination in residential houses. Environ Int. 2014 Aug;69:9-17. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2014.04.001. Epub 2014 May 4.

Kandel CE, Simor AE, Redelmeier DA. Elevator buttons as unrecognized sources of bacterial colonization in hospitals. Open Med. 2014 Jul 8;8(3):e81-6. eCollection 2014.

Lax S, Smith DP, Hampton-Marcell J, Owens SM, Handley KM, Scott NM, Gibbons SM, Larsen P, Shogan BD, Weiss S, Metcalf JL, Ursell LK, Vázquez-Baeza Y, Van Treuren W, Hasan NA, Gibson MK, Colwell R, Dantas G, Knight R, Gilbert JA. Longitudinal analysis of microbial interaction between humans and the indoor environment. Science. 2014 Aug 29;345(6200):1048-52. doi: 10.1126/science.1254529.

Marks LR, Reddinger RM, Hakansson AP. Biofilm formation enhances fomite survival of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes. Infect Immun. 2014 Mar;82(3):1141-6. doi: 10.1128/IAI.01310-13. Epub 2013 Dec 26.

Martínez-Bastidas T, Castro-del Campo N, Mena KD, Castro-del Campo N, León-Félix J, Gerba CP, Chaidez C. Detection of pathogenic micro-organisms on children's hands and toys during play. J Appl Microbiol. 2014 Jun;116(6):1668-75. doi: 10.1111/jam.12473. Epub 2014 Mar 20.

Price JR, Golubchik T, Cole K, Wilson DJ, Crook DW, Thwaites GE, Bowden R, Walker AS, Peto TE, Paul J, Llewelyn MJ. Whole-genome sequencing shows that patient-to-patient transmission rarely accounts for acquisition of Staphylococcus aureus in an intensive care unit. Clin Infect Dis. 2014 Mar;58(5):609-18. doi: 10.1093/cid/cit807. Epub 2013 Dec 12.

Rosenthal M, Aiello A, Larson E, Chenoweth C, Foxman B. Healthcare Workers' Hand Microbiome May Mediate Carriage of Hospital Pathogens. Pathogens. 2013 Dec 27;3(1):1-13.

Shang J, Ma C, Poghosyan L, Dowding D, Stone P. The prevalence of infections and patient risk factors in home health care: a systematic review. Am J Infect Control. 2014 May;42(5):479-84. doi: 10.1016/j.ajic.2013.12.018. Epub 2014 Mar 20.

Sousa AC, Almeida JR, Pereira CC, Ramiro Pastorinho M, Pereira ÂM, Nogueira AJ, Taborda-Barata L, Teixeira JP, Correia AC, Alves A. Characterization of fungal communities in house dust samples collected from central Portugal − a preliminary survey. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2014;77(14-16):972-82. doi: 10.1080/15287394.2014.911137.

Tschudin-Sutter S, Frei R, Stephan R, Hächler H, Nogarth D, Widmer AF. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae: a threat from the kitchen. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2014 May;35(5):581-4. doi: 10.1086/675831.

Uhlemann AC, Dordel J, Knox JR, Raven KE, Parkhill J, Holden MT, Peacock SJ, Lowy FD. Molecular tracing of the emergence, diversification, and transmission of S. aureus sequence type 8 in a New York community. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 May 6;111(18):6738-43. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1401006111. Epub 2014 Apr 21.

Wolf I, Bergervoet PW, Sebens FW, van den Oever HL, Savelkoul PH, van der Zwet WC. The sink as a correctable source of extended-spectrum β-lactamase contamination for patients in the intensive care unit. J Hosp Infect. 2014 Jun;87(2):126-30. doi: 10.1016/j.jhin.2014.02.013. Epub 2014 Apr 18.

Dishwashers identified as reservoir for Legionella. Yoshida M. Abstract K-1677. Presented at: Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy; Sept. 5-9, 2014; Washington, D.C.

Zlateva KT, de Vries JJ, Coenjaerts FE, van Loon AM, Verheij T, Little P, Butler CC, Goossens H, Leven M, Claas EC; GRACE Study Group. Prolonged shedding of rhinovirus and re-infection in adults with respiratory tract illness. Eur Respir J. 2014 Jul;44(1):169-77. doi: 10.1183/09031936.00172113. Epub 2014 May 29.


Topic 3 – Hygiene procedures

Sifuentes LY, Koenig DW, Phillips RL, Reynolds KA, Gerba CP. Use of hygiene protocols to control the spread of viruses in a hotel. Food Environ Virol. 2014 Sep;6(3):175-81. doi: 10.1007/s12560-014-9158-0. Epub 2014 Jul 9.

He C, Salonen H, Ling X, Crilley L, Jayasundara N, Cheung HC, Hargreaves M, Huygens F, Knibbs LD, Ayoko GA, Morawska L. The impact of flood and post-flood cleaning on airborne microbiological and particle contamination in residential houses. Environ Int. 2014 Aug;69:9-17. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2014.04.001. Epub 2014 May 4.

Salmon S, Truong AT, Nguyen VH, Pittet D, McLaws ML. Health care workers' hand contamination levels and antibacterial efficacy of different hand hygiene methods used in a Vietnamese hospital. Am J Infect Control. 2014 Feb;42(2):178-81. doi: 10.1016/j.ajic.2013.07.013. Epub 2013 Dec 19.

Sooklal S, Khan A, Kannangara S. Hospital Clostridium difficile outbreak linked to laundry machine malfunction. Am J Infect Control. 2014 Jun;42(6):674-5. doi: 10.1016/j.ajic.2014.02.012.

Cloutman-Green E, D'Arcy N, Spratt DA, Hartley JC, Klein N. How clean is clean--is a new microbiology standard required? Am J Infect Control. 2014 Sep;42(9):1002-3. doi: 10.1016/j.ajic.2014.04.025.

Barnes SL, Morgan DJ, Harris AD, Carling PC, Thom KA. Preventing the transmission of multidrug-resistant organisms: modeling the relative importance of hand hygiene and environmental cleaning interventions. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2014 Sep;35(9):1156-62. doi: 10.1086/677632. Epub 2014 Jul 25.

Adukwu EC, Allen SC, Phillips CA. A comparison of the sensitivity of four Staphylococcus aureus isolates to two chlorine-based disinfectants and an eco-friendly commercially available cleaning agent. Int J Environ Health Res. 2014 Apr 14:1-11. [Epub ahead of print]

Bartz S, Tondo EC. Evaluation of two recommended disinfection methods for cleaning cloths used in food services of southern Brazil. Braz J Microbiol. 2014 Jan 15;44(3):765-70. eCollection 2013.

Honisch M, Stamminger R, Bockmühl DP. Impact of wash cycle time, temperature and detergent formulation on the hygiene effectiveness of domestic laundering. J Appl Microbiol. 2014 Dec;117(6):1787-97. doi: 10.1111/jam.12647. Epub 2014 Oct 13.

Chang SC, Li WC, Huang KY, Huang YC, Chiu CH, Chen CJ, Hsieh YC, Kuo CY, Shih SR, Lin TY. Efficacy of alcohols and alcohol-based hand disinfectants against human enterovirus 71. J Hosp Infect. 2013 Apr;83(4):288-93. doi: 10.1016/j.jhin.2012.12.010. Epub 2013 Feb 8.

Elmaksoud SA, Patel N, Maxwell SL, Sifuentes LY, Gerba CP. Use of household bleach for emergency disinfection of drinking water. J Environ Health. 2014 May;76(9):22-5.

Enserink R, Scholts R, Bruijning-Verhagen P, Duizer E, Vennema H, de Boer R, Kortbeek T, Roelfsema J, Smit H, Kooistra-Smid M, van Pelt W. High detection rates of enteropathogens in asymptomatic children attending day care. PLoS One. 2014 Feb 24;9(2):e89496. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0089496. eCollection 2014.

Huang C, Ma W, Stack S. The hygienic efficacy of different hand-drying methods: a review of the evidence. Mayo Clin Proc. 2012 Aug;87(8):791-8. doi: 10.1016/j.mayocp.2012.02.019. Epub 2012 May 31.

Liu WL, Liang HW, Lee MF, Lin HL, Lin YH, Chen CC, Chang PC, Lai CC, Chuang YC, Tang HJ. The impact of inadequate terminal disinfection on an outbreak of imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in an intensive care unit. PLoS One. 2014 Sep 25;9(9):e107975. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0107975. eCollection 2014.

Schaffner DW, Bowman JP, English DJ, Fischler GE, Fuls JL, Krowka JF, Kruszewski FH. Quantitative microbial risk assessment of antibacterial hand hygiene products on risk of shigellosis. J Food Prot. 2014 Apr;77(4):574-82. doi: 10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-13-366.

Rutala WA, Weber DJ. Selection of the ideal disinfectant. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2014 Jul;35(7):855-65. doi: 10.1086/676877. Epub 2014 May 29.

Salmon S, Truong AT, Nguyen VH, Pittet D, McLaws ML. Health care workers' hand contamination levels and antibacterial efficacy of different hand hygiene methods used in a Vietnamese hospital. Am J Infect Control. 2014 Feb;42(2):178-81. doi: 10.1016/j.ajic.2013.07.013. Epub 2013 Dec 19.

Savolainen-Kopra C, Korpela T, Simonen-Tikka ML, Amiryousefi A, Ziegler T, Roivainen M, Hovi T. Single treatment with ethanol hand rub is ineffective against human rhinovirus--hand washing with soap and water removes the virus efficiently. J Med Virol. 2012 Mar;84(3):543-7. doi: 10.1002/jmv.23222.

Schaffner DW, Bowman JP, English DJ, Fischler GE, Fuls JL, Krowka JF, Kruszewski FH. Quantitative microbial risk assessment of antibacterial hand hygiene products on risk of shigellosis. J Food Prot. 2014 Apr;77(4):574-82. doi: 10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-13-366.

Sigler V, Hensley S. Persistence of mixed staphylococci assemblages following disinfection of hospital room surfaces. J Hosp Infect. 2013 Mar;83(3):253-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jhin.2012.12.009. Epub 2013 Jan 30.

Warnes SL, Keevil CW. Inactivation of norovirus on dry copper alloy surfaces. PLoS One. 2013 Sep 9;8(9):e75017. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0075017. eCollection 2013.


Topic 4 – Intervention studies

Wolf J, Prüss-Ustün A, Cumming O, Bartram J, Bonjour S, Cairncross S, Clasen T, Colford JM Jr, Curtis V, De France J, Fewtrell L, Freeman MC, Gordon B, Hunter PR, Jeandron A, Johnston RB, Mäusezahl D, Mathers C, Neira M, Higgins JP. Assessing the impact of drinking water and sanitation on diarrhoeal disease in low- and middle-income settings: systematic review and meta-regression. Trop Med Int Health. 2014 Aug;19(8):928-42. doi: 10.1111/tmi.12331. Epub 2014 May 8.

Freeman MC, Stocks ME, Cumming O, Jeandron A, Higgins JP, Wolf J, Prüss-Ustün A, Bonjour S, Hunter PR, Fewtrell L, Curtis V. Hygiene and health: systematic review of handwashing practices worldwide and update of health effects. Trop Med Int Health. 2014 Aug;19(8):906-16. doi: 10.1111/tmi.12339. Epub 2014 May 28.


Topic 5 – Behaviour change

Gebel J, Teichert-Barthel U, Hornbach-Beckers S, Vogt A, Kehr B, Littmann M, Kupfernagel F, Ilschner C, Simon A, Exner M. Hygiene tips for kids. Concept and examples of realisation. [Article in German]. Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz. 2008 Nov;51(11):1304-13. doi: 10.1007/s00103-008-0697-0.

Jackson C, Griffiths P. Dirt and disgust as key drivers in nurses' infection control behaviours: an interpretative, qualitative study. J Hosp Infect. 2014 Jun;87(2):71-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jhin.2014.04.001. Epub 2014 Apr 18.

Dickinson A, Wills W, Meah A, Short F. Food safety and older people: the Kitchen Life study. Br J Community Nurs. 2014 May;19(5):226, 228-32.


Topic 6 – Microbial resistance

van Hal SJ, Steen JA, Espedido BA, Grimmond SM, Cooper MA, Holden MT, Bentley SD, Gosbell IB, Jensen SO. In vivo evolution of antimicrobial resistance in a series of Staphylococcus aureus patient isolates: the entire picture or a cautionary tale? J Antimicrob Chemother. 2014 Feb;69(2):363-7. doi: 10.1093/jac/dkt354. Epub 2013 Sep 18.

Condell O, Power KA, Händler K, Finn S, Sheridan A, Sergeant K, Renaut J, Burgess CM, Hinton JC, Nally JE, Fanning S. Comparative analysis of Salmonella susceptibility and tolerance to the biocide chlorhexidine identifies a complex cellular defense network. Front Microbiol. 2014 Aug 1;5:373. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2014.00373. eCollection 2014.

Harbarth S, Tuan Soh S, Horner C, Wilcox MH. Is reduced susceptibility to disinfectants and antiseptics a risk in healthcare settings? A point/counterpoint review. J Hosp Infect. 2014 Aug;87(4):194-202. doi: 10.1016/j.jhin.2014.04.012. Epub 2014 Jun 5.

Morrissey I, Oggioni MR, Knight D, Curiao T, Coque T, Kalkanci A, Martinez JL; BIOHYPO Consortium. Evaluation of epidemiological cut-off values indicates that biocide resistant subpopulations are uncommon in natural isolates of clinically-relevant microorganisms. PLoS One. 2014 Jan 23;9(1):e86669. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0086669. eCollection 2014.


Topic 7 – Hygiene hypothesis

Abrahamsson TR, Jakobsson HE, Andersson AF, Björkstén B, Engstrand L, Jenmalm MC. Low gut microbiota diversity in early infancy precedes asthma at school age. Clin Exp Allergy. 2014 Jun;44(6):842-50. doi: 10.1111/cea.12253.

Amberbir A, Medhin G, Abegaz WE, Hanlon C, Robinson K, Fogarty A, Britton J, Venn A, Davey G. Exposure to Helicobacter pylori infection in early childhood and the risk of allergic disease and atopic sensitization: a longitudinal birth cohort study. Clin Exp Allergy. 2014 Apr;44(4):563-71. doi: 10.1111/cea.12289.

Amoah AS, Boakye DA, van Ree R, Yazdanbakhsh M. Parasitic worms and allergies in childhood: insights from population studies 2008-2013. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2014 May;25(3):208-17. doi: 10.1111/pai.12174. Epub 2013 Dec 10.

de Azevedo MS, Innocentin S, Dorella FA, Rocha CS, Mariat D, Pontes DS, Miyoshi A, Azevedo V, Langella P, Chatel JM. Immunotherapy of allergic diseases using probiotics or recombinant probiotics. J Appl Microbiol. 2013 Aug;115(2):319-33. doi: 10.1111/jam.12174. Epub 2013 Mar 13.

Barry RJ, Pickett W, Rennie DC, Dosman JA, Pahwa P, Hagel L, Karunanayake C, Lawson JA; Saskatchewan Rural Health Study Team. The role of farm operational and rural environments as potential risk factors for pediatric asthma in rural Saskatchewan. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2014 Sep;49(9):842-51. doi: 10.1002/ppul.22903. Epub 2013 Oct 25.

Behbod B, Sordillo JE, Hoffman EB, Datta S, Webb TE, Kwan DL, Kamel JA, Muilenberg ML, Scott JA, Chew GL, Platts-Mills TA, Schwartz J, Coull B, Burge H, Gold DR. Asthma & Allergy Development: Contrasting Influences of Yeasts & Other Fungal Exposures. Clin Exp Allergy. 2014 Sep 9. doi: 10.1111/cea.12401. [Epub ahead of print]

Elazab N, Mendy A, Gasana J, Vieira ER, Quizon A, Forno E. Probiotic administration in early life, atopy, and asthma: a meta-analysis of clinical trials. Pediatrics. 2013 Sep;132(3):e666-76. doi: 10.1542/peds.2013-0246. Epub 2013 Aug 19.

Endara P, Vaca M, Platts-Mills TA, Workman L, Chico ME, Barreto ML, Rodrigues LC, Cooper PJ. Effect of urban versus rural residence on the association between atopy and wheeze in Latin America: findings from a case-control analysis. Clin Exp Allergy. 2014 Sep 9. doi: 10.1111/cea.12399. [Epub ahead of print]

Fox M, Knapp LA, Andrews PW, Fincher CL. Hygiene and the world distribution of Alzheimer's disease: Epidemiological evidence for a relationship between microbial environment and age-adjusted disease burden. Evol Med Public Health. 2013 Jan;2013(1):173-86. doi: 10.1093/emph/eot015. Epub 2013 Aug 11.

Ganesh V, Baru AM, Hesse C, Friedrich C, Glage S, Gohmert M, Jänke C, Sparwasser T. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection-induced CD11b+ Gr1+ cells ameliorate allergic airway inflammation. Infect Immun. 2014 Mar;82(3):1052-63. doi: 10.1128/IAI.01378-13. Epub 2013 Dec 16.

Genuneit J, Strachan DP, Büchele G, Weber J, Loss G, Sozanska B, Boznanski A, Horak E, Heederik D, Braun-Fahrländer C, von Mutius E; GABRIELA study group. The combined effects of family size and farm exposure on childhood hay fever and atopy. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2013 May;24(3):293-8. doi: 10.1111/pai.12053. Epub 2013 Apr 3.

Guibas GV, Moschonis G, Xepapadaki P, Roumpedaki E, Androutsos O, Manios Y, Papadopoulos NG. Conception via in vitro fertilization and delivery by Caesarean section are associated with paediatric asthma incidence. Clin Exp Allergy. 2013 Sep;43(9):1058-66. doi: 10.1111/cea.12152.

Guibas GV, Xepapadaki P, Moschonis G, Douladiris N, Filippou A, Tsirigoti L, Manios Y, Papadopoulos NG. Breastfeeding and wheeze prevalence in pre-schoolers and pre-adolescents: the Genesis and Healthy Growth studies. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2013 Dec;24(8):772-81. doi: 10.1111/pai.12169. Epub 2013 Dec 2.

Hesselmar B, Sjöberg F, Saalman R, Aberg N, Adlerberth I, Wold AE. Pacifier cleaning practices and risk of allergy development. Pediatrics. 2013 Jun;131(6):e1829-37. doi: 10.1542/peds.2012-3345. Epub 2013 May 6.

Janse JJ, Wong GW, Potts J, Ogorodova LM, Fedorova OS, Mahesh PA, Sakellariou A, Papadopoulos NG, Knulst AC, Versteeg SA, Kroes AC, Vossen AC, Campos Ponce M, Kummeling I, Burney P, van Ree R, Yazdanbakhsh M. The association between foodborne and orofecal pathogens and allergic sensitisation -- EuroPrevall study. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2014 May;25(3):250-6. doi: 10.1111/pai.12175. Epub 2013 Dec 10.

Karvonen AM, Hyvärinen A, Rintala H, Korppi M, Täubel M, Doekes G, Gehring U, Renz H, Pfefferle PI, Genuneit J, Keski-Nisula L, Remes S, Lampi J, von Mutius E, Pekkanen J. Quantity and diversity of environmental microbial exposure and development of asthma: a birth cohort study. Allergy. 2014 Aug;69(8):1092-101. doi: 10.1111/all.12439. Epub 2014 Jun 13.

Kramer A, Bekeschus S, Bröker BM, Schleibinger H, Razavi B, Assadian O. Maintaining health by balancing microbial exposure and prevention of infection: the hygiene hypothesis versus the hypothesis of early immune challenge. J Hosp Infect. 2013 Feb;83 Suppl 1:S29-34. doi: 10.1016/S0195-6701(13)60007-9.

Lynch SV, Wood RA, Boushey H, Bacharier LB, Bloomberg GR, Kattan M, O'Connor GT, Sandel MT, Calatroni A, Matsui E, Johnson CC, Lynn H, Visness CM, Jaffee KF, Gergen PJ, Gold DR, Wright RJ, Fujimura K, Rauch M, Busse WW, Gern JE. Effects of early-life exposure to allergens and bacteria on recurrent wheeze and atopy in urban children. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014 Sep;134(3):593-601.e12. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2014.04.018. Epub 2014 Jun 4.

Mackenzie KJ, Anderton SM, Schwarze J. Viral respiratory tract infections and asthma in early life; cause and effect? Clin Exp Allergy. 2013 Apr 29. doi: 10.1111/cea.12139. [Epub ahead of print]

MacNeill SJ, Sozanska B, Danielewicz H, Debinska A, Kosmeda A, Boznanski A, Illi S, Depner M, Strunz-Lehner C, Waser M, Büchele G, Horak E, Genuneit J, Heederik D, Braun-Fahrländer C, von Mutius E, Cullinan P; GABRIELA study group. Asthma and allergies: is the farming environment (still) protective in Poland? The GABRIEL Advanced Studies. Allergy. 2013 Jun;68(6):771-9. doi: 10.1111/all.12141. Epub 2013 Apr 29.

Marrs T, Bruce KD, Logan K, Rivett DW, Perkin MR, Lack G, Flohr C. Is there an association between microbial exposure and food allergy? A systematic review. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2013 Jun;24(4):311-320.e8. doi: 10.1111/pai.12064. Epub 2013 Apr 11.

Naik S, Bouladoux N, Wilhelm C, Molloy MJ, Salcedo R, Kastenmuller W, Deming C, Quinones M, Koo L, Conlan S, Spencer S, Hall JA, Dzutsev A, Kong H, Campbell DJ, Trinchieri G, Segre JA, Belkaid Y. Compartmentalized control of skin immunity by resident commensals. Science. 2012 Aug 31;337(6098):1115-9. doi: 10.1126/science.1225152. Epub 2012 Jul 26.

Nakatsuji T, Chiang HI, Jiang SB, Nagarajan H, Zengler K, Gallo RL. The microbiome extends to subepidermal compartments of normal skin. Nat Commun. 2013;4:1431. doi: 10.1038/ncomms2441.

Scott-Jupp R. Enterovirus and the hygiene hypothesis. Arch Dis Child. 2013 Oct;98(10):780. doi: 10.1136/archdischild-2013-304967. Epub 2013 Aug 12.

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