A new study shows that toilets contaminated with C difficile spores are a persistent source of environmental contamination over an extended number of flushes.
There are many rational reasons why consumers spend huge sums on household cleaning products, but non-rational mechanisms are nevertheless still at work.
This study compared the efficacy of using paper towels (PT), warm air dryers (WAD) and jet air dryers (JAD) after hand washing in terms of microbiological effectiveness and potential for dispersal of pathogens.
In developing and promoting hygiene, issues which represent a barrier to change need to be addressed and balanced against the need for effective hygiene. These include environmental and toxicity issues, concerns about antibiotic resistance, and whether we have become “too clean”.
Whereas it was always assumed that viruses were most effective at spreading illness by attacking human cells as individual virus particles, new research demonstrates that viral particles concealed in a membrane can mount a much more potent attack on individual human cells.