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Hand–mouth transfer and potential for exposure to E. coli and F+ coliphage in beach sand Chicago, Illinois

Beach sand contains faecal indicator bacteria, often in densities greatly exceeding the adjacent swimming waters. The authors examine the transferability of Escherichia coli and F+ coliphage (MS2) from beach sand to hands in order to estimate the potential subsequent health risk. The results suggest that beach sand may be an important medium for microbial exposure; bacteria transfer is related to initial concentration in the sand; and rinsing may be effective in limiting oral exposure to sand-borne microbes of human concern. J Water Health. 2009;7(4):623-9.

Author: Whitman RL, Przybyla-Kelly K, Shively DA, Nevers MB, Byappanahalli MN

Published: 01/07/2009

Publication Type: Journal article

Publisher: Journal of Water and Health