Hand–mouth transfer and potential for exposure to E. coli and F+ coliphage in beach sand Chicago, Illinois
Beach sand contains faecal indicator bacteria, often in densities greatly exceeding the adjacent swimming waters. The authors examine the transferability of Escherichia coli and F+ coliphage (MS2) from beach sand to hands in order to estimate the potential subsequent health risk. The results suggest that beach sand may be an important medium for microbial exposure; bacteria transfer is related to initial concentration in the sand; and rinsing may be effective in limiting oral exposure to sand-borne microbes of human concern. J Water Health. 2009;7(4):623-9.
Publication Type: Journal article
Publisher: Journal of Water and Health